Printable Solar Cells

Printable Solar Cells

;

John Wiley & Sons Inc

06/2017

576

Dura

Inglês

9781119283713

15 a 20 dias

Descrição não disponível.
Preface xv Part I Hybrid Materials and Process Technologies for Printable Solar Cells 1 Organic and Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells 3 Serap Gune and Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci 1.1 Introduction 4 1.2 Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells 5 1.2.1 Introduction to Hybrid Solar Cells 5 1.2.2 Hybrid Solar Cells 5 1.2.2.1 Operational Principles of Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells 5 1.2.2.2 Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells 8 1.2.2.3 Bilayer Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells 12 1.2.2.4 Inverted-Type Hybrid Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells 15 1.2.2.5 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 16 1.2.2.6 Perovskite Solar Cells 21 1.3 Conclusion 23 References 25 2 Solution Processing and Thin Film Formation of Hybrid Semiconductors for Energy Applications 37 J. Ciro, J.F. Montoya, R. Betancur and F. Jaramillo 2.1 Physical Chemical Principles of Film Formation by Solution Processes: From Suspensions of Nanoparticles and Solutions to Nucleation, Growth, Coarsening and Microstructural Evolution of Films 38 2.2 Solution-Processing Techniques for Thin Film Deposition 40 2.2.1 Spin Coating 42 2.2.2 Doctor Blade 43 2.2.3 Slot-Die Coating 44 2.2.4 Spray Coating 46 2.3 Properties and Characterization of Thin Films: Transport, Active and Electrode Layers in Thin Film Solar Cells 46 2.4 Understanding the Crystallization Processes in Hybrid Semiconductor Films: Hybrid Perovskite as a Model 50 2.4.1 Thermal Transitions Revealed by DSC 50 2.4.2 Heat Transfer Processes in a Meso-Superstructured Perovskite Solar Cell 53 2.4.3 Effect of the Annealing Process on Morphology and Crystalline Properties of Perovskite Films 55 2.4.4 Role of Precursor Composition in the Crystallinity of Perovskite Films: Understanding the Role of Additives and Moisture in the Final Properties of Perovskite Layers 56 References 57 3 Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells Based on Quantum Dots 65 Wenjin Yue 3.1 Introduction 65 3.2 Polymer/QD Solar Cells 67 3.2.1 Working Principle 67 3.2.2 Device Parameters 68 3.2.2.1 Open-Circuit Voltage (Voc) 68 3.2.2.2 Short-Circuit Current (Jsc) 68 3.2.2.3 Fill Factor (FF) 69 3.2.3 Device Structure 70 3.2.4 Progress of Polymer/QD Solar Cells 71 3.2.4.1 Device Based on Cd Compound 71 3.2.4.2 Device Based on Pb Compound 74 3.2.4.3 Device Based on CuInS2 76 3.2.5 Strategy for Improved Device Performance 78 3.2.5.1 QDs Surface Treatment 78 3.2.5.2 In-Situ Synthesis of QDs 81 3.2.5.3 Polymer End-Group Functionalization 82 3.3 Outlooks and Conclusions 83 Acknowledgment 83 4 Hole Transporting Layers in Printable Solar Cells 93 David Curiel and Miriam Mas-Montoya 4.1 Introduction 94 4.2 Hole Transporting Layers in Organic Solar Cells 97 4.2.1 Utility of Hole Transporting Layers 97 4.2.1.1 Energy Level Alignment at the Interfaces and Effect on the Open-Circuit Voltage 98 4.1.1.2 Definition of Device Polarity, Charge Transport and Use as Blocking Layer 102 4.1.1.3 Optical Spacer 103 4.1.1.4 Modulation of the Active Layer Morphology and Use as Protective Layer 103 4.1.2 Overview of Materials Used as Hole Transporting Layers 104 4.1.2.1 Polymers 104 4.1.2.2 Small Molecules 109 4.1.2.3 Metals 112 4.1.2.4 Metal Oxides 112 4.1.2.5 Metal Salts 116 4.1.2.6 Carbon Nanotubes 116 4.1.2.7 Graphene-Based Materials 116 4.1.2.8 Self-Assembled Monolayers 119 4.2 Hole Transporting Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 121 4.2.1 Overview of Materials Used as Hole Transporting Layers 123 4.2.1.1 Small Molecules 123 4.2.1.2 Polymers 126 4.3 Hole Transporting Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells 127 4.3.1 Overview of Materials Used as Hole Transporting Layers 128 4.3.1.1 Small Molecules 128 4.3.1.2 Polymers 137 4.3.1.3 Metal Oxides 139 4.3.1.4 Metal Salts 140 4.3.1.5 Carbon Nanotubes 141 4.3.1.6 Graphene-Based Materials 142 4.4 Concluding Remarks 143 5 Printable Solar Cells 163 Alexander Kovalenko and Michal Hrabal 5.1 Introduction 164 5.2 Printable Solar Cells Working Principles 165 5.2.1 CIGS Solar Cells 165 5.2.2 Perovskite Solar Cells 167 5.2.3 Organic Solar Cells 170 5.2.4 Printable Charge-Carrier Selective Layers 172 5.3 Solution-Based Deposition of Thin Film Layers 173 5.3.1 Coating Techniques 174 5.3.1.1 Casting 174 5.3.1.2 Spin Coating 174 5.3.1.3 Blade Coating 176 5.3.1.4 Slot-Die Coating 177 5.3.2 Printing Techniques 179 5.3.2.1 Screen Printing 180 5.3.2.2 Gravure Printing 182 5.3.2.3 Flexographic Printing 184 5.3.2.4 Inkjet Printing 185 5.4 Characterization Techniques 189 5.4.1 Characterization of Thin Layers 189 5.4.2 Electrical Characterization of Solar Cells 190 5.5 Conclusion 194 References 197 Part II Organic Materials and Process Technologies for Printable Solar Cells 6 Spray-Coated Organic Solar Cells 205 Yifan Zheng and Junsheng Yu 6.1 Introduction 205 6.2 Introduction of Spray-Coating Method 206 6.2.1 History of Spray Coating 206 6.2.2 Spray-Coating Equipment 206 6.2.2.1 Airbrush Spray Deposition 206 6.2.2.2 Ultrasonic Spray Deposition 209 6.2.2.3 Electrospray Deposition 210 6.2.3 Spray-Coating Treatment 212 6.2.3.1 Thermal Annealing 213 6.2.3.2 Solvent Treatments 214 6.3 Materials for Spray Coating 216 6.3.1 Organic Materials 216 6.3.2 Metal Oxide and Nanoparticles 220 6.3.3 Perovskite 222 6.4 Application of Spray Coating 224 6.5 Conclusions 226 Acknowledgment 226 References 226 7 Interface Engineering: A Key Aspect for the Potential Commercialization of Printable Organic Photovoltaic Cells 235 Varun Vohra, Nur Tahirah Razali and Hideyuki Murata 7.1 Introduction 236 7.2 SD-PSCs Based on P3HT:PCBM Active Layers 240 7.2.1 Increase in Donor-Acceptor Interface through Nanostructuration of SD-PSCs 240 7.2.2 Generation of Vertical Concentration Gradient by Addition of Regiorandom P3HT in SD-PSCs 242 7.2.3 Generation of Vertical Concentration Gradient and Molecular Orientation by Rubbing P3HT in SD-PSCs 246 7.3 High Performance BHJ-PSCs with Favorable Molecular Orientation Resulting from Active Layer/Substrate Interactions 248 7.4 Strongly Bond Metal Leaves as Laminated Top Electrodes for Low-Cost PSC Fabrication 252 7.5 Conclusions 257 References 258 8 Structural, Optical, Electrical and Electronic Properties of PEDOT: PSS Thin Films and Their Application in Solar Cells 263 Sheng Hsiung Chang, Cheng-Chiang Chen, Hsin-Ming Cheng and Sheng-Hui Chen 8.1 Introduction 264 8.2 Chemical Structure of PEDOT:PSS 265 8.3 Optical and Electrical Characteristics of PEDOT:PSS 267 8.4 Electronic Characteristics of PEDOT:PSS 270 8.5 Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Thin Films 271 8.6 Hole-Transporting Materials: PEDOT:PSS Thin Films 273 8.6.1 Effect of PEDOT/PSS Ratio 274 8.6.2 Effect of Spin Rate 275 8.6.3 Effect of Thermal Annealing Temperature 277 8.6.4 Effects of Viscosity of PEDOT:PSS Solutions 278 8.7 Directions for Future Development 281 8.8 Conclusion 282 Reference 283 Part III Perovskites and Process Technologies for Printable Solar Cells 9 Organometal Trihalide Perovskite Absorbers: Optoelectronic Properties and Applications for Solar Cells 291 Timur Sh. Atabaev and Nguyen Hoa Hong 9.1 Introduction 291 9.2 Optical Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Materials 293 9.3 Charge Transport Properties 294 9.4 Electron Transporting Materials (ETM) 295 9.5 Hole-Transporting Materials (HTM) 295 9.6 Perovskite Solar Cells Architectures 296 9.7 Perovskite Deposition Methods 298 9.8 Photoexcited States 300 9.9 Hysteresis 300 9.10 Stability in Humid Environment 302 9.11 Stability Under UV Light Exposure 302 9.12 Stability at High Temperatures 303 9.13 Additives 304 9.14 Conclusions and Outlook 305 Acknowledgment 306 References 306 10 Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells with Scalable and Roll-to-Roll Compatible Printing/Coating Processes 313 Dechan Angmo, Mei Gao and Doojin Vak 10.1 Introduction 314 10.2 Optoelectronic Properties 316 10.3 History 317 10.4 Device Configurations 318 10.5 Functional Materials 321 10.5.1 The Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites 322 10.5.2 Electron-Selective Layer 324 10.5.3 Hole-Selective Layer 325 10.5.4 Transparent Electrode 325 10.5.5 Counter Electrode 326 10.6 Spin Coating 327 10.7 Roll-to-Roll Processing 331 10.8 Substrate Limitation 331 10.9 Printing and Coating Methods 333 10.9.1 Coating Methods 335 10.9.1.1 Slot-Die Coating 335 10.9.1.2 Spray Coating 339 10.9.1.3 Doctor Blade Coating 342 10.9.1.4 Knife Coating 344 10.9.1.5 Reverse Gravure Coating 345 10.9.2 Printing Methods 346 10.9.2.1 Gravure Printing 346 10.9.2.2 Flexographic Printing 347 10.9.2.3 Screen Printing 349 10.9.2.4 Inkjet Printing 350 10.10 Future Outlook 352 References 352 11 Inkjet Printable Processes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells and Modules Based on Advanced Nanocomposite Materials 363 Theodoros Makris, Argyroula Mourtzikou, Andreas Rapsomanikis and Elias Stathatos 11.1 Introduction 364 11.1.1 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 364 11.1.2 Perovskite Solar Cells 367 11.2 Inkjet Printing Process 369 11.2.1 Inkjet Printing in DSSC Technology 370 11.2.1.1 Inkjet Printing of Transition Metal Oxides 372 11.2.1.2 Inkjet Printing of Dyes on Semiconducting Oxides 373 11.2.1.3 Inkjet Printing of Ionic Liquid-Based Electrolytes 374 11.2.2 Inkjet Printing in Perovskite Solar Cell Technology 377 11.2.2.1 Inkjet Printing of Perovskite Material 378 11.3 Conclusions 379 References 379 Part IV Inorganic Materials and Process Technologies for Printable Solar Cells 383 12 Solution-Processed Kesterite Solar Cells 385 Fangyang Liu 12.1 Introduction 385 12.2 Fundamental Aspects of Kesterite Solar Cells 386 12.2.1 Crystal Structure 386 12.2.2 Phase Space and Secondary Phases 388 12.2.3 Optical and Electrical Properties 390 12.2.4 Device Architecture 391 12.3 Keterite Absorber Deposition Strategies 393 12.4 Electrodeposition 395 12.4.1 Stacked Elemental Layer (SEL) Electrodeposition 396 12.4.2 Metallic Alloy Co-electrodeposition 398 12.4.3 Chalcogenide Co-electrodeposition 399 12.5 Direct Solution Coating 400 12.5.1 Hydrazine Solution Coating 401 12.5.2 Particulate-Based Solution Coating 402 12.5.3 Molecular-Based Solution Coating 405 12.6 Conclusion 409 References 409 13 Inorganic Hole Contacts for Perovskite Solar Cells: Towards High-Performance Printable Solar Cells 423 Xingtian Yin and Wenxiu Que 13.1 Introduction 424 13.2 Transition Metal Oxides 426 13.2.1 Molybdenum Oxide (MoOx, x < 3) 426 13.2.2 Nickel Oxide (NiO) 428 13.2.2.1 Mesoscopic NiO Perovskite Solar Cells 428 13.2.2.2 Planar NiO Perovskite Solar Cells 429 13.2.3 Binary Copper Oxide (CuO and Cu2O) 439 13.2.4 Other Transition Metal Oxides 440 13.3 Non-Oxide Copper Compounds 440 13.3.1 Cuprous Iodide (CuI) 441 13.3.2 Cuprous Rhodanide (CuSCN) 441 13.3.3 Copper Sulfide (CuS) 442 13.3.4 CuAlO2 443 13.3.5 CuInS2 and Cu2ZnSnS4 444 13.4 Other Inorganic HTMs 444 13.4.1 PdS Quantum Dots (QDs) 444 13.4.2 Two-Dimensional (2D) Materials 445 13.5 Towards Printable Solar Cells 446 13.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 449 Acknowledgment 450 References 450 14 Electrode Materials for Printable Solar Cells 457 Lijun Hu, Ke Yang, Wei Chen, Falin Wu, Jiehao Fu, Wenbo Sun, Hongyan Huang, Baomin Zhao, Kuan Sun and Jianyong Ouyang 14.1 Introduction 458 14.2 Transparent Conjugated Polymers 459 14.2.1 Solvent Additive Method 460 14.2.2 Post-Treatment of PEDOT:PSS Films 461 14.2.3 Printing PEDOT:PSS Inks 463 14.3 Carbon-Based Nanomaterials 463 14.3.1 Graphene 466 14.3.2 Carbon Nanotubes 472 14.4 Metallic Nanostructures 476 14.4.1 Metal Nanomeshes 476 14.4.2 Metal Nanowire Networks 480 14.4.3 Ultrathin Metal Films 482 14.5 Multilayer Thin Films 486 14.6 Printable Metal Back Electrodes 491 14.7 Carbon-Based Back Electrodes 494 14.8 Summary and Outlook 497 Acknowledgment 498 References 498 15 Photonic Crystals for Photon Management in Solar Cells 513 Shuai Zhang, Zhongze Gu and Jian-Ning Ding 15.1 Introduction 513 15.2 Fundamentals of PCs 515 15.3 Fabrication Strategies of PCs for Photovoltaics 518 15.3.1 1D Multilayer PCs 519 15.3.2 2D PCs 524 15.3.3 3D PCs 527 15.4 Different Functionalities of PCs in Solar Cells 530 15.4.1 PC Reflectors 531 15.4.2 PC Absorbers 535 15.4.3 Front-Side PCs 538 15.4.4 PCs for Other Functionalities 540 15.5 Summary and Outlook 540 Acknowledgment 542 References 542
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