Metal-Air Batteries

Metal-Air Batteries

Fundamentals and Applications

Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH

11/2018

432

Dura

Inglês

9783527342792

15 a 20 dias

Descrição não disponível.
Preface xiii 1 Introduction to Metal-Air Batteries: Theory and Basic Principles 1 Zhiwen Chang and Xin-bo Zhang 1.1 Li-O2 Battery 1 1.2 Sodium-O2 Battery 5 References 7 2 Stabilization of Lithium-Metal Anode in Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries 11 Bin Liu,Wu Xu, and Ji-Guang Zhang 2.1 Introduction 11 2.2 Recent Progresses in Li Metal Protection for Li-O2 Batteries 13 2.2.1 Design of Composite Protective Layers 13 2.2.2 New Insights on the Use of Electrolyte 18 2.2.3 Functional Separators 25 2.2.4 Solid-State Electrolytes 29 2.2.5 Alternative Anodes 30 2.3 Challenges and Perspectives 30 Acknowledgment 32 References 32 3 Li-Air Batteries: Discharge Products 41 Xuanxuan Bi, RongyueWang, and Jun Lu 3.1 Introduction 41 3.2 Discharge Products in Aprotic Li-O2 Batteries 43 3.2.1 Peroxide-based Li-O2 Batteries 43 3.2.1.1 Electrochemical Reactions 43 3.2.1.2 Crystalline and Electronic Band Structure of Li2O2 44 3.2.1.3 Reaction Mechanism and the Coexistence of Li2O2 and LiO2 47 3.2.2 Superoxide-based Li-O2 Batteries 52 3.2.3 Problems and Challenges in Aprotic Li-O2 Batteries 54 3.2.3.1 Decomposition of the Electrolyte 54 3.2.3.2 Degradation of the Carbon Cathode 55 3.3 Discharge Products in Li-Air Batteries 56 3.3.1 Challenges to Exchanging O2 to Air 56 3.3.2 Effect ofWater on Discharge Products 56 3.3.2.1 Effect of Small Amount ofWater 56 3.3.2.2 Aqueous Li-O2 Batteries 57 3.3.3 Effect of CO2 on Discharge Products 59 3.3.4 Current Li-Air Batteries and Perspectives 60 Acknowledgment 61 References 61 4 Electrolytes for Li-O2 Batteries 65 Alex R. Neale, Peter Goodrich, Christopher Hardacre, and Johan Jacquemin 4.1 General Li-O2 Battery Electrolyte Requirements and Considerations 65 4.1.1 Electrolyte Salts 69 4.1.2 Ethers and Glymes 73 4.1.3 Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) and Sulfones 76 4.1.4 Nitriles 78 4.1.5 Amides 79 4.1.6 Ionic Liquids 80 4.1.7 Solid-State Electrolytes 86 4.2 Future Outlook 87 References 87 5 Li-Oxygen Battery: Parasitic Reactions 95 Xiahui Yao, Qi Dong, Qingmei Cheng, and DunweiWang 5.1 The Desired and Parasitic Chemical Reactions for Li-Oxygen Batteries 95 5.2 Parasitic Reactions of the Electrolyte 96 5.2.1 Nucleophilic Attack 97 5.2.2 Autoxidation Reaction 99 5.2.3 Acid-Base Reaction 100 5.2.4 Proton-mediated Parasitic Reaction 100 5.2.5 Additional Parasitic Chemical Reactions of the Electrolyte: Reduction Reaction 102 5.3 Parasitic Reactions at the Cathode 102 5.3.1 The Corrosion of Carbon in the Discharge Process 104 5.3.2 The Corrosion of Carbon in the Recharge Process 106 5.3.3 Catalyst-induced Parasitic Chemical Reactions 106 5.3.4 Alternative Cathode Materials and Corresponding Parasitic Chemistries 110 5.3.5 Additives and Binders 111 5.3.6 Contaminations 111 5.4 Parasitic Reactions on the Anode 112 5.4.1 Corrosion of the Li Metal 114 5.4.2 SEI in the Oxygenated Atmosphere 114 5.4.3 Alternative Anodes and Associated Parasitic Chemistries 115 5.5 New Opportunities from the Parasitic Reactions 116 5.6 Summary and Outlook 117 References 118 6 Li-Air Battery: Electrocatalysts 125 Zhiwen Chang and Xin-bo Zhang 6.1 Introduction 125 6.2 Types of Electrocatalyst 126 6.2.1 Carbonaceous Materials 126 6.2.1.1 Commercial Carbon Powders 126 6.2.1.2 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 126 6.2.1.3 Graphene 127 6.2.1.4 Doped Carbonaceous Material 128 6.2.2 Noble Metal and Metal Oxides 129 6.2.3 Transition Metal Oxides 130 6.2.3.1 Perovskite Catalyst 131 6.2.3.2 Redox Mediator 133 6.3 Research of Catalyst 135 6.4 Reaction Mechanism 138 6.5 Summary 141 References 142 7 Lithium-Air BatteryMediator 151 Zhuojian Liang, Guangtao Cong, YuWang, and Yi-Chun Lu 7.1 Redox Mediators in Lithium Batteries 151 7.1.1 Redox Mediators in Li-Air Batteries 151 7.1.2 Redox Mediators in Li-ion and Lithium-flow Batteries 153 7.1.2.1 Overcharge Protection in Li-ion Batteries 153 7.1.2.2 Redox Targeting Reactions in Lithium-flow Batteries 154 7.2 Selection Criteria and Evaluation of Redox Mediators for Li-O2 Batteries 156 7.2.1 Redox Potential 156 7.2.2 Stability 157 7.2.3 Reaction Kinetics and Mass Transport Properties 161 7.2.4 Catalytic Shuttle vs Parasitic Shuttle 163 7.3 Charge Mediators 166 7.3.1 LiI (Lithium Iodide) 170 7.3.2 LiBr (Lithium Bromide) 172 7.3.3 Nitroxides: TEMPO (2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidinyloxyl) and Others 176 7.3.4 TTF (Tetrathiafulvalene) 180 7.3.5 Tris[4-(diethylamino)phenyl]amine (TDPA) 182 7.3.6 Comparison of the Reported Charge Mediators 183 7.4 Discharge Mediator 186 7.4.1 Iron Phthalocyanine (FePc) 190 7.4.2 2,5-Di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DBBQ) 192 7.5 Conclusion and Perspective 194 References 195 8 Spatiotemporal Operando X-ray Diffraction Study on Li-Air Battery 207 Di-Jia Liu and Jiang-Lan Shui 8.1 Microfocused X-ray Diffraction ( -XRD) and Li-O2 Cell Experimental Setup 207 8.2 Study on Anode: Limited Reversibility of Lithium in Rechargeable LAB 209 8.3 Study on Separator: Impact of Precipitates to LAB Performance 217 8.4 Study on Cathode: Spatiotemporal Growth of Li2O2 During Redox Reaction 222 References 230 9 Metal-Air Battery: In Situ Spectroelectrochemical Techniques 233 IainM. Aldous, Laurence J. Hardwick, Richard J. Nichols, and J. Padmanabhan Vivek 9.1 Raman Spectroscopy 233 9.1.1 In Situ Raman Spectroscopy for Metal-O2 Batteries 233 9.1.2 BackgroundTheory 233 9.1.3 Practical Considerations 235 9.1.3.1 Electrochemical Roughening 235 9.1.3.2 Addressing Inhomogeneous SERS Enhancement 237 9.1.4 In Situ Raman Setup 238 9.1.5 Determination of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reaction MechanismsWithin Metal-O2 Batteries 239 9.2 Infrared Spectroscopy 247 9.2.1 Background 247 9.2.2 IR Studies of Electrochemical Interfaces 247 9.2.3 Infrared Spectroscopy for Metal-O2 Battery Studies 249 9.3 UV/Visible Spectroscopic Studies 253 9.3.1 UV/Vis Spectroscopy 254 9.3.2 UV/Vis Spectroscopy for Metal-O2 Battery Studies 255 9.4 Electron Spin Resonance 257 9.4.1 Cell Setup 259 9.4.2 Deployment of Electrochemical ESR in Battery Research 259 9.5 Summary and Outlook 262 References 262 10 Zn-Air Batteries 265 Tongwen Yu, Rui Cai, and Zhongwei Chen 10.1 Introduction 265 10.2 Zinc Electrode 266 10.3 Electrolyte 268 10.4 Separator 270 10.5 Air Electrode 271 10.5.1 Structure of Air Electrode 271 10.5.2 Oxygen Reduction Reaction 271 10.5.3 Oxygen Evolution Reaction 272 10.5.4 Electrocatalyst 273 10.5.4.1 Noble Metals and Alloys 274 10.5.4.2 Transition Metal Oxides 275 10.5.4.3 Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials 278 10.5.4.4 Metal-free Materials 282 10.6 Conclusions and Outlook 288 References 288 11 Experimental and Computational Investigation of Nonaqueous Mg/O2 Batteries 293 Jeffrey G. Smith, Gulin Vardar, CharlesW. Monroe, and Donald J. Siegel 11.1 Introduction 293 11.2 Experimental Studies of Magnesium/Air Batteries and Electrolytes 295 11.2.1 Ionic Liquids as Candidate Electrolytes for Mg/O2 Batteries 295 11.2.2 Modified Grignard Electrolytes for Mg/O2 Batteries 299 11.2.3 All-inorganic Electrolytes for Mg/O2 Batteries 303 11.2.4 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy 307 11.3 Computational Studies of Mg/O2 Batteries 310 11.3.1 Calculation of Thermodynamic Overpotentials 310 11.3.2 Charge Transport in Mg/O2 Discharge Products 315 11.4 Concluding Remarks 320 References 321 12 Novel Methodologies to Model Charge Transport in Metal-Air Batteries 331 Nicolai RaskMathiesen,Marko Melander,Mikael Kuisma, Pablo Garcia-Fernandez, and JuanMaria Garcia Lastra 12.1 Introduction 331 12.2 Modeling Electrochemical Systems with GPAW 333 12.2.1 Density FunctionalTheory 333 12.2.2 Conductivity from DFT Data 335 12.2.3 The GPAWCode 337 12.2.4 Charge Transfer Rates with Constrained DFT 338 12.2.4.1 MarcusTheory of Charge Transfer 338 12.2.4.2 Constrained DFT 339 12.2.4.3 Polaronic Charge Transport at the Cathode 341 12.2.5 Electrochemistry at Solid-Liquid Interfaces 342 12.2.5.1 Modeling the Electrochemical Interface 342 12.2.5.2 Implicit Solvation at the Electrochemical Interface 343 12.2.5.3 Generalized Poisson-Boltzmann Equation for the Electric Double Layer 344 12.2.5.4 Electrode PotentialWithin the Poisson-Boltzmann Model 345 12.2.6 Calculations at Constant Electrode Potential 346 12.2.6.1 The Need for a Constant Potential Presentation 346 12.2.6.2 Grand Canonical Ensemble for Electrons 347 12.2.6.3 Fictitious Charge Dynamics 349 12.2.6.4 Model in Practice 350 12.2.7 Conclusions 351 12.3 Second Principles for MaterialModeling 351 12.3.1 The Energy in SP-DFT 352 12.3.2 The Lattice Term (E(0)) 353 12.3.3 Electronic Degrees of Freedom 354 12.3.4 Model Construction 357 12.3.5 Perspectives on SP-DFT 358 Acknowledgments 359 References 359 13 Flexible Metal-Air Batteries 367 Huisheng Peng, Yifan Xu, Jian Pan, Yang Zhao, LieWang, and Xiang Shi 13.1 Introduction 367 13.2 Flexible Electrolytes 368 13.2.1 Aqueous Electrolytes 368 13.2.1.1 PAA-based Gel Polymer Electrolyte 369 13.2.1.2 PEO-based Gel Polymer Electrolyte 369 13.2.1.3 PVA-based Gel Polymer Electrolyte 371 13.2.2 Nonaqueous Electrolytes 373 13.2.2.1 PEO-based Polymer Electrolyte 373 13.2.2.2 PVDF-HFP-based Polymer Electrolyte 377 13.2.2.3 Ionic Liquid Electrolyte 377 13.3 Flexible Anodes 378 13.4 Flexible Cathodes 381 13.4.1 Modified Stainless Steel Mesh 381 13.4.2 Modified Carbon Textile 382 13.4.3 Carbon Nanotube 384 13.4.4 Graphene-based Cathode 385 13.4.5 Other Composite Electrode 386 13.5 Prototype Devices 386 13.5.1 Sandwich Structure 387 13.5.2 Fiber Structure 390 13.6 Summary 394 References 394 14 Perspectives on the Development of Metal-Air Batteries 397 Zhiwen Chang and Xin-bo Zhang 14.1 Li-O2 Battery 397 14.1.1 Lithium Anode 397 14.1.2 Electrolyte 398 14.1.3 Cathode 398 14.1.4 The Reaction Mechanisms 399 14.1.5 The Development of Solid-state Li-O2 Battery 399 14.1.6 The Development of Flexible Li-O2 Battery 400 14.2 Na-O2 Battery 401 14.3 Zn-air Battery 402 References 403 Index 407
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