History of the Caucasus

History of the Caucasus

Volume 1: At the Crossroads of Empires

Bloomsbury Publishing PLC






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I At the edge of Europe and Asia - An Introduction 1. A Time of Conflict 2. A Special Geography 3. Peoples and Languages 4. Objectives and Sources II The Formation of the Landscape and Early Humans of the Palaeolithic 1. The Origin of the Caucasus Mountains and the History of the Adjacent Seas - Black Sea and Caspian Sea Excursus: Did the Flood take place near the Black Sea? 2. Homo Georgicus: First Early Humans Outside Africa 3. Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens in the North and South Caucasus III Prehistoric Cultures: From the Neolithic to the Iron Age 1. The Southern Caucasus 1.1 The Shulaveri-Shomu-Aratashen culture 1.2 The Chalcolithic cultures of Sioni and Leila Tepe 1.3 The Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Kura-Araxes Culture 1.4 The Kurgan Cultures of the Middle Bronze Age Excursus: The invention of wheel and cart 1.5 Late Bronze Age and Iron Age 1.6 Early Tribal Organizations, War Alliances and Confederations 1.7 The Colchis in Prehistoric Times 2. The Northern Caucasus 2.1 Chalcolithic Settlements and Early, Flat Tumuli 2.2 The Early Bronze Age Cultures of Maikop 2.3 The Middle and Late Bronze Age Dolmen Culture 2.4 The Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Pri-Elbrus Culture IV. A First Caucasian state, Greek Empires and Northern Equestrian Peoples 1. Urartu/Biainili: The First Caucasian State 1.1 The Creation of Biainili 1.2 Biainili Struggles with Assyria for Supremacy in the Middle East 1.3 Rise of Assyria and Weakening of Biainili 1.4 Biainili's Decline 2. Equestrian Peoples from the North and Greek Trading Colonies 2.1 The Cimmerians 2.2 Immigrant Scythians and Autochthonous Maiotes 2.3 Greek Emporia in the North-western Caucasus 2.4 Sarmatians, Alans and the Hun Invasion V. The South Caucasus under Achaemenid Sovereignty, Armenian Kingdoms and Pontos 1 The Achaemenid Sovereignty 2 The Hellenization of the Colchis 3. Early Kingdoms of Armenia 3.1 Armenian Dynasties of the Orontides/Yervanduni and Early Artaxiad 3.2 Tigranes the Great, Pontos and the Mithridaic Wars Excursus: The eight deities of the Armenian pantheon 3.3 Late Artaxiad: Armenia between Rome and Parthia 3.4 Roman Patronage of Pontos VI Roman-Parthian Condominiums in the South Caucasus 1. Comments on Early Historiography in the Southern Caucasus 2. The Kingdom of Kartli (Iberia) and Lazica 2.1 Legendary Ancestors and the Parnavazids 2.2 Iberia in the Orbit of Rome 3. Caucasian Albania in pre-Islamic Time 4. Armenia 4.1 Armenia as a Roman-Parthian Condominium 4.2 Armenia between Sasanid and Roman Sovereignty VII The Introduction of Christianity as a State Ideology and the Political Division of the South Caucasus 1. Legends of Apostolic Missionary Work 2. Armenia and the Tradition of Gregori the Enlightener 2.1 Syrian-Mesopotamian and Greek-Cappadocian Impulses 2.2 King Trdat IV and Gregori the Illuminator 2.3 Characteristics of Early Armenian Christianity 2.4 A power struggle between King and Catholics and the division of Armenia Excursus: Mesrop Mashtots and the invention of the Armenian script 3. Kartli: From King Mirian III to the Abolition of the Monarchy 3.1 The Legend of St. Nino and the Christianization of Kartli 3.2 Kartli Under Persian Sovereignty 4 The Conversion of Albania and the Apostolic Church of Caucasian Albania 5 Lazica and a First Christianization of the North Caucasian Alans 5.1 The Lazican Wars 5.2 The Christianization of Lazica, Alania and Svanetia and the veneration of military saints 6. The Persian Hegemony in Armenia, Georgia and Albani 7. The Alienation Between the Caucasian Church Hierarchies VIII Between Caliphate, Byzantium and Khazars 1. Southern Caucasian Principalities under Islamic Rule until the Battle of Bagravand in 772 2. The Rise of the Bagratid dynasties 2.1 The Emergence of the Armenian Kingdom Excursus: Paulikians and Tondrakians 2.2 The Formation of the Georgian Kingdom of Sakartvelo 3. The Empire of the Khazars in the Northern Caucasus 4. The Kingdom of Alanya in the North-western Caucasus 5. Muslim Dynasties of Albania and the Invasion of the Seljuks 5.1 The Sayids 5.2 The Sallarids 5.3 The Rawwadids 5.4 The Shaddadids 5.5 The Yazidids and Hashimids 6. The Kingdoms of Armenia, Byzantium and the Seljuk Conquest 6.1 The Armenian Kingdoms 6.2 The Byzantine Annexation of Armenia 6.3 The Seljuks Conquer Armenia 6.4 Ani under the Rule of the Shaddadids IX. Outlook Appendices I. Population statistics by country II Ancient established languages of the Caucasus by language families III Chronology of the most important Caucasian dynasties Notes Bibliography List of Maps Photo credits Acknowledgements Index Concepts People Places
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