Flexible Energy Conversion and Storage Devices

Flexible Energy Conversion and Storage Devices

;

Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH

09/2018

512

Dura

Inglês

9783527342532

15 a 20 dias

Descrição não disponível.
Preface xiii 1 Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors andMicro-Pattern Supercapacitors 1 Yuqing Liu, Chen Zhao, Shayan Seyedin, Joselito Razal, and Jun Chen 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Potential Components and Device Architecture for Flexible Supercapacitors 4 1.2.1 Flexible Electrode Materials 5 1.2.1.1 Carbon Materials 5 1.2.1.2 Conducting Polymers 6 1.2.1.3 Composite Materials 7 1.2.2 Solid-State Electrolytes 7 1.2.3 Device Architecture of Flexible Supercapacitor 8 1.3 Flexible Supercapacitor Devices with Sandwiched Structures 10 1.3.1 Freestanding Films Based Flexible Devices 10 1.3.2 Flexible Substrate Supported Electrodes Based Devices 14 1.4 Flexible Micro-Supercapacitor Devices with Interdigitated Architecture 18 1.4.1 In situ Synthesis of Active Materials on Pre-Patterned Surfaces 18 1.4.2 Direct Printing of Active Materials 21 1.4.3 Patterning ofWell-Developed Film Electrodes 24 1.5 Performance Evaluation and Potential Application of Flexible Supercapacitors 27 1.5.1 Performance Evaluation of Flexible Supercapacitors 28 1.5.2 Integration of Flexible Supercapacitors 29 1.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 32 References 32 2 Fiber/Yarn-Based Flexible Supercapacitor 37 Yang Huang and Chunyi Zhi 2.1 Introduction 37 2.2 Supercapacitor with Intrinsic Conductive Fiber/Yarn 40 2.2.1 Carbolic Fiber/Yarn-Based Supercapacitor 41 2.2.2 Metallic Fiber/Yarn-Based Supercapacitor 44 2.2.3 Hybrid Conductive Fiber/Yarn-Based Supercapacitor 48 2.3 Supercapacitors with Intrinsic Nonconductive Fiber/Yarn 51 2.3.1 Fiber/Yarn Modified by Carbon Materials 52 2.3.2 Fiber/Yarn Modified by Metallic Materials 54 2.4 Integrated Electronic Textiles 57 2.5 Conclusion and Outlook 61 References 62 3 Flexible Lithium Ion Batteries 67 Xuli Chen and YingyingMa 3.1 Overview of Lithium Ion Battery 67 3.1.1 General Principle 67 3.1.2 Cathode 70 3.1.2.1 LiCoO2 with Layered Structure 70 3.1.2.2 LiMn2O4 with a Spinel Structure 70 3.1.2.3 LiFePO4 with an Olivine Structure 70 3.1.3 Anode 71 3.1.3.1 Carbonaceous Anodes 71 3.1.3.2 Metal Alloy Anodes 71 3.1.4 Electrolyte 72 3.2 Planar-Shaped Flexible Lithium Ion Batteries 73 3.2.1 Bendable Planar Lithium Ion Batteries 73 3.2.1.1 Bendable Carbon-Based Planar Lithium Ion Battery 73 3.2.1.2 Thin Metal Material-Based Lithium Ion Battery 77 3.2.1.3 Polymer-Based Lithium Ion Battery 79 3.2.1.4 Special Structural Design-Based Flexible Lithium-Ion Battery 82 3.2.2 Stretchable Planar Flexible Lithium Ion Batteries 84 3.3 Fiber-Shaped Flexible Lithium Ion Batteries 87 3.3.1 Bendable Fiber-Shaped Lithium Ion Battery 87 3.3.2 Stretchable Fiber-Shaped Lithium Ion Battery 93 3.4 Perspective 94 References 95 4 Flexible Sodium Ion Batteries: From Materials to Devices 97 Shengyang Dong, Ping Nie, and Xiaogang Zhang 4.1 Introduction to Flexible Sodium Ion Batteries (SIBs) 97 4.2 The Key Scientific Issues of Flexible SIBs 98 4.2.1 Design of Advanced Active-Materials 99 4.2.2 Design of Flexible Substrates and Electrodes 99 4.2.3 Developing Novel Processing Technologies 101 4.3 Design of Advanced Materials for Flexible SIBs 101 4.3.1 Inorganic Anode Materials for Flexible SIBs 101 4.3.2 Inorganic Cathode Materials for Flexible SIBs 110 4.3.3 Organic Materials for Flexible SIBs 114 4.3.4 Other Major Components for Flexible SIBs (Electrolyte, Separators, etc.) 115 4.4 Design of Full Cell for Flexible SIBs 117 4.5 Summary and Outlook 121 References 123 5 1D and 2D Flexible Carbon Matrix Materials for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries 127 TianyiWang, Yushu Liu, Dawei Su, and GuoxiuWang 5.1 Introduction 127 5.2 The Working Mechanism and Challenges of Li-S Batteries 128 5.3 Flexible Cathode Hosts for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries 129 5.4 Electrolyte Membranes for Flexible Li-S Batteries 138 5.4.1 Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Flexible Li-S Batteries 139 5.4.2 Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Flexible Li-S Batteries 142 5.4.3 Composite Polymer Electrolytes for Flexible Li-S Batteries 143 5.5 Separator for Flexible Li-S Batteries 144 5.6 Summary 148 References 149 6 Flexible Electrodes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries 155 Jia-Qi Huang,Meng Zhao, Rui Xu, and Qiang Zhang 6.1 Introduction 155 6.2 Lithium-Sulfur Battery and Flexible Cathode 156 6.2.1 Lithium-Sulfur Battery 156 6.2.2 Flexible Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Battery 156 6.3 The Flexible Cathode of Lithium-Sulfur Battery 157 6.3.1 Flexible Cathode Based on One-dimensional Materials 157 6.3.1.1 Flexible Cathode Based on CNTs 157 6.3.1.2 Flexible Cathode Based on Carbon Nanofibers 163 6.3.1.3 Flexible Cathode Based on Polymer Fibers 166 6.3.2 Flexible Cathode Based on Two-dimensional Materials 167 6.3.2.1 Flexible Cathode Based on Graphene Paper 167 6.3.2.2 Flexible Cathode Based on Graphene Foam 169 6.3.3 Flexible Cathode Based on Three-dimensional Materials 172 6.3.3.1 Flexible Cathode Based on Three-dimensional Carbon Foam Materials 172 6.3.3.2 Flexible Cathode Based on Carbon/Binder Composites Materials 174 6.3.3.3 Flexible Cathode Based on Three-dimensional Metal Materials 176 6.4 Summary and Prospect 177 References 178 7 Flexible Lithium-Air Batteries 183 Qing-Chao Liu, Zhi-Wen Chang, Kai Chen, and Xin-Bo Zhang 7.1 Motivation for the Development of Flexible Lithium-Air Batteries 183 7.2 State of the Art for Flexible Lithium-Air Batteries 184 7.2.1 Overview of Flexible Energy Storage and Conversion Devices 184 7.2.2 Overview of Flexible Lithium-Air Batteries 185 7.2.2.1 Similarities between Coin Cell/Swagelok Batteries with Flexible Battery 187 7.2.2.2 Differences between Coin Cell/Swagelok Batteries with Flexible Battery 188 7.2.3 Current Status of Flexible Lithium-Air Battery 190 7.2.3.1 Planar Battery 190 7.2.3.2 Cable-type Battery 199 7.2.3.3 Woven-type Battery Pack 202 7.2.3.4 Battery Array Pack 203 7.3 Challenges and FutureWork on Flexible Lithium-Air Batteries 206 7.4 Concluding Remarks 207 References 208 8 Nanodielectric Elastomers for Flexible Generators 215 Li-Juan Yin and Zhi-Min Dang 8.1 Introduction 215 8.2 Electro-Mechanical Principles 216 8.2.1 Electro-Mechanical Conversion 216 8.2.2 Equations of DE Generators 217 8.3 Increasing the Performance of Dielectric Elastomers from the Materials Perspective 218 8.3.1 Increasing the Relative Permittivity of DEs 219 8.3.1.1 Elastomer Composites 219 8.3.1.2 Elastomer Blends 222 8.3.1.3 Chemical Modification 223 8.3.2 Decreasing Young's Modulus 225 8.3.3 Complex Network Structure 225 8.4 Circuits and Electro-Mechanical Coupling Methods 227 8.5 Examples of Dielectric Elastomer Generators 230 8.6 Conclusion and Outlook 231 Acknowledgments 232 References 232 9 Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 239 Byung-Man Kim, Hyun-Gyu Han, Deok-Ho Roh, Junhyeok Park, KwangMin Kim, Un-Young Kim, and Tae-Hyuk Kwon 9.1 Introduction 239 9.2 Materials and Fabrication of Electrodes for FDSCs 242 9.2.1 Photo-electrode 242 9.2.1.1 Flexible Substrate for Photo-electrode 242 9.2.1.2 Nanostructured-photoactive Film 243 9.2.1.3 Fiber-type FDSCs 249 9.2.2 Counter-electrode 251 9.3 Sensitizers in FDSCs and Thin Photoactive Film DSCs 254 9.3.1 State-of-the-Art Review of Sensitizers in FDSCs 254 9.3.2 Sensitizers in Thin Photoactive Film DSCs 258 9.4 Electrolyte and Hole-Transporting Materials for FDSCs 270 9.5 Conclusion and Outlook 276 References 278 10 Self-assembly in Fabrication of Semitransparent and Meso-Planar Hybrid Perovskite Photovoltaic Devices 283 Ravi K.Misra, Sigalit Aharon,Michael Layani, Shlomo Magdassi, and Lioz Etgar 10.1 Introduction 283 10.1.1 Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells Through Self-assembly of Perovskite in One Step 285 10.1.1.1 Cell Architecture and Morphology 286 10.1.1.2 Transparency and Photovoltaic Performance of the Cells 288 10.1.1.3 Recombination Behavior of the Charges in Cells 291 10.1.2 Mesoporous-Planar Hybrid Perovskite Devices Through Mesh-assisted Self-assembly of Mesoporous-TiO2 292 10.1.2.1 Cell Architecture and Morphology 293 10.1.2.2 Photovoltaic Performance of the Solar Cells 297 10.1.2.3 Study of Recombination Behavior through Charge Extraction 300 10.2 Summary and Future Perspective 302 References 302 11 Flexible Organic Solar Cells 305 Lin Hu, Youyu Jiang, and Yinhua Zhou 11.1 Introduction 305 11.1.1 Working Principle 306 11.1.2 Performance Characterization of OSCs 307 11.1.3 Device Structure 308 11.1.3.1 Conventional Device Structure 308 11.1.3.2 Inverted Device Structure 308 11.2 Active Layer 308 11.2.1 Donor Materials 310 11.2.1.1 Poly(Phenylenevinylene) (PPV) and Polythiophene (PT) Derivatives 310 11.2.1.2 D-A Conjugated Polymers 311 11.2.2 Acceptor Materials 313 11.2.2.1 Fullerene Derivatives 313 11.2.2.2 Non-fullerene Acceptors 315 11.3 Flexible Electrode 317 11.3.1 Conductive Polymer (PEDOT:PSS) 317 11.3.2 Metal Nanowires and Grids 318 11.3.3 Hybrid Carbon Material 319 11.4 Interfacial Layer 320 11.4.1 Hole Transporting Layer (HTL) 320 11.4.2 Electron Transporting Layer (ETL) 320 11.5 Tandem Organic Solar Cells 321 11.5.1 Interconnecting Layer 322 11.5.2 Low Bandgap Polymer Sub-cell 324 11.6 Fabrication Technology for Flexible Organic Solar Cells 326 11.7 Summary 328 References 329 12 Flexible Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells 339 Yueli Liu, Keqiang Chen, Zhuoyin Peng, andWen Chen 12.1 Introduction 339 12.2 Basic Concepts 340 12.2.1 Quantum Dots (QDs) 340 12.2.1.1 Quantum Size Effect 341 12.2.1.2 Multiple Exciton Generation 341 12.2.1.3 Ultrafast Electron Transfer 342 12.2.1.4 Large Specific Surface Area 343 12.2.2 Quantum Dots Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) 344 12.2.2.1 Schematic of the Structure and Charge Circulation of QDSSCs 344 12.2.2.2 Evaluation of the Photovoltaic Performances of QDSSCs 345 12.3 Development of the Flexible QDSSCs 347 12.3.1 Choosing of the Types of QDs 347 12.3.1.1 Cd-based QDs 347 12.3.1.2 Pb-based QDs 348 12.3.1.3 Cu-based QDs 349 12.3.2 Fabrication of the Flexible Photo-anode Films 350 12.3.3 TiO2-Based Photo-anodes 351 12.3.3.1 Photo-anodes of TiO2 Nanoparticles 351 12.3.3.2 Photo-anodes of TiO2 Nanoarray Structures 352 12.3.3.3 Designing of Novel TiO2 Architecture as Photo-anodes 354 12.3.4 ZnO based Photo-anodes 354 12.3.5 Other Metal Oxide Based Photo-anodes 355 12.3.6 Development of the Sensitization Method 355 12.3.6.1 In situ Sensitization Techniques 356 12.3.6.2 Ex situ Techniques 358 12.3.6.3 Co-sensitization Techniques 360 12.3.7 Interfacial Engineering in QDSSCs 360 12.3.7.1 Surface Passivation by Large-bandgap Semiconductors 361 12.3.7.2 Surface Passivation by Metal Oxides 361 12.3.7.3 Surface Passivation by Molecular Dipoles 362 12.3.7.4 Surface Passivation by Dye Molecules 362 12.3.7.5 Surface Passivation by Molecular Relays 362 12.3.7.6 Combined Interfacial Engineering Methods 363 12.3.8 Optimization of the Counter Electrodes 363 12.3.8.1 Noble Metal Counter Electrodes 365 12.3.8.2 Carbon Counter Electrodes 365 12.3.8.3 Metallic Compound Counter Electrodes 366 12.3.8.4 Polymer Counter Electrodes 370 12.4 Conclusion and Future Outlook 370 Acknowledgments 371 References 371 13 Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerators 383 Fang Yi, Yue Zhang, Qingliang Liao, Zheng Zhang, and Zhuo Kang 13.1 Introduction 383 13.1.1 Motivation for the Development of Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerators 383 13.1.2 Basic Working Mechanism and Working Modes of Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerators 385 13.2 Materials Used for Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerators 387 13.3 Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Harvesting Ambient Energy 388 13.3.1 Harvesting Biomechanical Energy 388 13.3.2 HarvestingWind Energy 391 13.3.3 HarvestingWater Energy 392 13.4 Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Self-Powered Sensors 393 13.4.1 Self-Powered Touch/Pressure Sensors 393 13.4.2 Self-Powered Motion Sensors 397 13.4.2.1 Sensing Motion of Human Body 397 13.4.2.2 Sensing Motion of Objects 399 13.4.3 Self-Powered Acoustic Sensors 399 13.4.4 Self-Powered Liquid/Gas Flow Sensors 402 13.5 Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Self-Charging Power Units 405 13.5.1 Self-Charging over a Period of Time to Power Electronics 406 13.5.2 Sustainably Powering Electronics 406 13.6 Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Hybrid Energy Cells 409 13.7 Service Behavior of Triboelectric Nanogenerators 411 13.8 Summary and Prospects 414 References 415 14 Flexible Thermoelectric Materials and Devices 425 Radhika Prabhakar, Yu Zhang, and Je-Hyeong Bahk 14.1 Introduction 425 14.2 Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Basics 426 14.3 Flexible Thermoelectric Materials 429 14.3.1 Conducting Polymers 431 14.3.2 Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Based TE Materials 434 14.4 Flexible Thermoelectric Energy Harvesters 435 14.4.1 Energy Management 439 14.4.2 Architecture of Thermoelectric Modules 440 14.5 Transverse TE Devices 441 14.5.1 Simulations of Transverse TEG 444 14.6 Thermoelectric Sensors 446 14.7 Summary and Outlook 447 References 448 15 Carbon-based Electrocatalysts forWater-splitting 459 Guoqiang Li and Weijia Zhou 15.1 Introduction 459 15.2 Nonmetal-doped Carbon for HER 460 15.2.1 Nitrogen-doped Carbon-based Catalysts for HER 460 15.2.2 Other Heteroatom (B, S)-doped Carbon-based Catalysts for HER 462 15.2.3 Dual- or Treble-doped Carbons in Metal-free Catalysis 463 15.2.4 Metal-doped Carbon for HER 464 15.3 Metals Embedded in Carbon for HER 466 15.3.1 Core-Shell Structure for Carbon Nanotube and Nanoparticle 468 15.3.2 Metal Organic Frameworks for HER 471 15.4 Electrochemistry 474 15.4.1 Overpotential/Onset Potential and Calibration 474 15.4.2 Current Density and Electrochemical Surface Area 475 15.4.3 Tafel Plot and Exchange Current Density 476 15.4.4 Electrochemical Impedance 476 15.4.5 HER Durability and H2 Production 477 15.4.6 Activation 477 15.5 Outlook and Future Challenges 479 15.5.1 HER Mechanism for Carbon-based Catalysts 479 15.5.2 Electrochemistry, Especially for Activation Process 480 15.5.3 OER in Acidic Electrolyte 480 References 480 Index 485
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