Corrosion and Materials in Hydrocarbon Production

Corrosion and Materials in Hydrocarbon Production

A Compendium of Operational and Engineering Aspects

;

John Wiley and Sons Ltd

03/2019

344

Dura

Inglês

9781119515722

15 a 20 dias

Descrição não disponível.
Preface xvii Acknowledgement xix 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Scope and Objectives 2 1.2 The Impact of Corrosion 2 1.3 Principal Types of Corrosion in Hydrocarbon Production 5 1.4 The Way Ahead: Positive Corrosion 7 1.5 Summary 8 References 9 Bibliography 9 2 Carbon and Low Alloy Steels (CLASs) 11 2.1 Steel Products 11 2.2 Development of Mechanical Properties 12 2.3 Strengthening Mechanisms 14 2.4 Hardenability 16 2.5 Weldability 16 2.6 Line Pipe Steels 17 2.7 Well Completion Downhole Tubulars 17 2.8 Internally Clad Materials 18 2.9 Summary 18 Reference 20 Bibliography 20 API/ISO Specifications 20 ASME Standard 21 Further Reading 21 3 Corrosion?Resistant Alloys (CRAs) 23 3.1 Background 23 3.2 Alloying Elements, Microstructures, and their Significance for Corrosion Performance 24 3.3 Common Types/Grades of CRA Used in the Hydrocarbon Production Systems 30 3.4 Important Metallurgical Aspects of CRAs 33 3.5 Limits of Application 36 3.6 Selection Criteria 37 3.7 Future Demands and Requirements 39 3.8 Summary 40 References 41 Bibliography 42 Specifications 42 Further Reading 42 4 Water Chemistry 43 4.1 Sources of Water 44 4.2 Water Chemistry 45 4.3 Other Impacts on Corrosivity 46 4.4 Water Sampling Locations and Analysis Techniques 49 4.5 Influential Parameters in System Corrosivity 53 4.6 Summary 54 References 54 Bibliography 55 Standards 55 5 Internal Metal Loss Corrosion Threats 57 5.1 CO2 Metal Loss Corrosion 58 5.2 Key Influential Factors 60 5.3 Metal Loss CO2 Corrosion Prediction 63 5.4 Metal Loss Corrosion in Mixed H2S/CO2 Containing Streams 66 5.5 Summary 68 References 69 Bibliography 71 6 Environmental Cracking (EC) 73 6.1 Environmental Cracking Threat in Steels 73 6.2 EC Associated with Hydrogen Sulphide 74 6.3 Current Industry Practices 83 6.4 ISO 15156 83 6.5 Summary 86 Bibliography 87 7 Corrosion in Injection Systems 89 7.1 The Intent 90 7.2 Injection Systems 90 7.3 Water Treatment Methods 92 7.4 Water Corrosivity 94 7.5 Means of Corrosion Prediction 95 7.6 Materials Options 97 7.7 Supplementary Notes 100 7.8 Hydrotesting 101 7.9 Summary 103 References 104 Bibliography 104 8 Corrosion Mitigation by the Use of Inhibitor Chemicals 105 8.1 Inhibitor Characteristics 105 8.2 Inhibitor Testing and Application 111 8.3 Inhibitor Application/Deployment 116 8.4 Summary 119 References 120 9 Coating Systems 123 9.1 External Pipeline Coatings 123 9.2 Internal Coating and Lining 128 9.3 External Painting of Structures 130 9.4 Summary 132 References 132 Bibliography 132 10 Corrosion Trending 133 10.1 The Purpose of Corrosion Trending 134 10.2 Corrosion Monitoring 135 10.3 Corrosion Barrier Monitoring 142 10.4 Collection and Analysis of Real?Time Monitoring Data 143 10.5 Downhole Corrosion Monitoring 145 10.6 Inspection Techniques 146 10.7 Intelligent Pigging 147 10.8 Future Considerations 149 10.9 Summary 150 References 150 Bibliography 151 Specifications 151 11 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) 153 11.1 Main Features 154 11.2 The Primary Causes 155 11.3 The Motive for Promotion of Corrosion by Micro?organisms 157 11.4 Most Susceptible Locations and Conditions 161 11.5 Potential Prevention Measures 165 11.6 Means of Monitoring 168 11.7 Summary 170 References 171 Bibliography 172 12 Dense Phase CO2 Corrosion 173 12.1 Background 173 12.2 CO2 Stream Composition 175 12.3 Corrosion in the Presence of Aqueous Phases 177 12.4 Means of Corrosion Prediction 178 12.5 Method of Corrosion Mitigation 179 12.6 Summary 181 References 181 13 Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) 183 13.1 Historical Context 183 13.2 Key Parameters Affecting CUI 184 13.3 CUI Prevention Methods 189 13.4 CUI Mitigation Strategy 192 13.5 CUI Inspection 193 13.6 NDE/NDT Techniques to Detect CUI 195 13.7 Summary 196 References 197 14 Metallic Materials Optimisation Routes 199 14.1 Background 199 14.2 Production Facilities 200 14.3 The Operating Regimes 204 14.4 System Corrosivity 205 14.5 Oxygen Corrosion 206 14.6 Metallic Materials Optimisation Methodology 206 14.7 Materials Options 207 14.8 Internal Corrosion Mitigation Methods 208 14.9 Whole Life Cost (WLC) Analysis 210 14.10 Materials Optimisation Strategy 211 14.11 Summary 212 References 212 Bibliography 213 15 Non?metallic Materials: Elastomer Seals and Non?metallic Liners 215 15.1 Elastomer Seals 215 15.2 Non?metallic Liner Options for Corrosion Control 221 15.3 Flexible Pipes 226 15.4 Summary 229 References 230 Bibliography 230 16 Cathodic Protection (CP) 231 16.1 Key Points of Effectiveness 232 16.2 Cathodic Protection in Environmental Waters 232 16.3 Cathodic Protection and Hydrogen?Induced Cracking (HAC) 237 16.4 Cathodic Protection of Structures in Contact with the Ground 238 16.5 Cathodic Protection of Well Casings 240 16.6 Cathodic Protection and AC Interference 241 16.7 Inspection and Testing 242 16.8 Internal Cathodic Protection Systems 242 16.9 Summary 242 16.10 Terminologies 243 References 244 Bibliography 245 17 Corrosion Risk Analysis 247 17.1 Risk 248 17.2 The Bow Tie Concept 248 17.3 Risk Matrix 249 17.4 Corrosion RBA Process 250 17.5 Corrosion RBA: Input 251 17.6 Corrosion RBA: Analysis 252 17.7 Corrosion RBA: Output 255 17.8 Corrosion RBA: Overall Process 257 17.9 Risky Business 258 17.10 Behaviours 258 17.11 Bayes' Theorem 259 17.12 Moving Forward 260 17.13 Summary 260 References 261 18 Corrosion and Integrity Management 263 18.1 Integrity Management (IM) 263 18.2 Corrosion Management (CM) 266 18.3 Data Management 271 18.4 The Future 274 18.5 Summary 275 References 276 Bibliography 276 19 Corrosion and Materials Challenges in Hydrocarbon Production 277 19.1 Energy Viewpoint and the Role of Technology 277 19.2 Future Focus Areas and Horizon 278 19.3 Challenges in Materials and Corrosion Technology 278 19.4 Shortfalls in Technology Implementation and Knowledge Partnership 279 19.5 Summary 284 References 284 Bibliography 286 Abbreviations 287 Index 291
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