Cellulose Science and Technology

Cellulose Science and Technology

Chemistry, Analysis, and Applications

; ;

John Wiley and Sons Ltd

02/2019

480

Dura

Inglês

9781119217589

15 a 20 dias

Descrição não disponível.
Author Biography xv List of Contributors xvii Preface xxiii Acknowledgements xxv 1 Aminocelluloses - Polymers with Fascinating Properties and Application Potential 1 Thomas Heinze, Thomas Elschner, and Kristin Ganske 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Amino-/ammonium Group Containing Cellulose Esters 2 1.2.1 (3-Carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium Chloride Esters of Cellulose 2 1.2.2 Cellulose-4-(N-methylamino)butyrate (CMABC) 7 1.3 6-Deoxy-6-amino Cellulose Derivatives 9 1.3.1 Spontaneous Self-assembling of 6-Deoxy-6-amino Cellulose Derivatives 10 1.3.2 Application Potential of 6-Deoxy-6-amino Cellulose Derivatives 13 1.4 Amino Cellulose Carbamates 21 1.4.1 Synthesis 21 1.4.2 Properties 22 Acknowledgment 24 References 24 2 Preparation of Photosensitizer-bound Cellulose Derivatives for Photocurrent Generation System 29 Toshiyuki Takano 2.1 Introduction 29 2.2 Porphyrin-bound Cellulose Derivatives 31 2.3 Phthalocyanine-bound Cellulose Derivatives 34 2.4 Squaraine-bound Cellulose Derivative 40 2.5 Ruthenium(II) Complex-bound Cellulose Derivative 42 2.6 Fullerene-bound Cellulose Derivative 44 2.7 Porphyrin-bound Chitosan Derivative 45 2.8 Conclusion 47 References 47 3 Synthesis of Cellulosic Bottlebrushes with Regioselectively Substituted Side Chains and Their Self-assembly 49 Keita Sakakibara, Yuji Kinose, and Yoshinobu Tsujii 3.1 Introduction 49 3.2 Strategy for Accomplishing Regioselective Grafting of Cellulose 52 3.3 Regioselective Introduction of the First Polymer Side Chain 55 3.3.1 Introduction of Poly(styrene) at O-2,3 Position of 6-O-p-Methoxytritylcellulose (1) 55 3.3.2 Introduction of Poly(ethylene oxide) at O-2,3 Position of 6-O-p-Methoxytritylcellulose (1) 57 3.4 Regioselective Introduction of the Second Polymer Side Chain 58 3.4.1 Introduction of Poly(styrene) at O-6 Position of 2,3-di-O-PEO Cellulose (5) via Grafting-from Approach 58 3.4.2 Introduction of Poly(styrene) at O-6 Position of 2,3-di-O-PEO Cellulose (5) via Grafting to Approach Combining Click Reaction 58 3.5 SEC-MALLS Study 61 3.6 Summary and Outlook 64 Acknowledgments 64 References 64 4 Recent Progress on Oxygen Delignification of Softwood Kraft Pulp 67 Adriaan R. P. van Heiningen, Yun Ji, and Vahid Jafari 4.1 Introduction and State-of-the-Art of Commercial Oxygen Delignification 67 4.2 Chemistry of Delignification and Cellulose Degradation 70 4.3 Improving the Reactivity of Residual Lignin 73 4.4 Improving Delignification/Cellulose Degradation Selectivity During Oxygen Delignification 79 4.5 Improving Pulp Yield by Using Oxygen Delignification 90 4.6 Practical Implementation of High Kappa Oxygen Delignification 92 References 93 5 Toward a Better Understanding of Cellulose Swelling, Dissolution, and Regeneration on theMolecular Level 99 Thomas Rosenau, Antje Potthast, Andreas Hofinger,Markus Bacher, Yuko Yoneda, KurtMereiter, Fumiaki Nakatsubo, Christian Jager, Alfred D. French, and Kanji Kajiwara 5.1 Introduction 99 5.2 Cellulose Swelling, Dissolution and Regeneration at the Molecular Level 102 5.2.1 The "Viewpoint of Cellulose" 109 5.2.2 The "Viewpoint of Cellulose Solvents" 113 5.3 Conclusion 118 References 120 6 Interaction ofWaterMolecules with Carboxyalkyl Cellulose 127 HitomiMiyamoto, Keita Sakakibara, IsaoWataoka, Yoshinobu Tsujii, Chihiro Yamane, and Kanji Kajiwara 6.1 Introduction 127 6.2 Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) and Carboxyethyl Cellulose (CEC) 128 6.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) 131 6.4 Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) 133 6.5 Molecular Dynamics 136 6.6 Chemical Modification and Biodegradability 138 Acknowledgments 140 References 140 7 Analysis of the Substituent Distribution in Cellulose Ethers - Recent Contributions 143 PetraMischnick 7.1 Introduction 143 7.2 Methyl Cellulose 146 7.2.1 Average DS and Methyl Pattern in the Glucosyl Unit 146 7.2.2 Distribution Along and Over the Chain 149 7.2.3 Summary 153 7.3 Hydroxyalkylmethyl Celluloses 153 7.3.1 Hydroxyethylmethyl Celluloses 159 7.3.2 Hydroxypropylmethyl Celluloses 160 7.3.3 Summary 165 7.4 Carboxymethyl Cellulose 166 7.5 Outlook 166 Acknowledgment 167 References 167 8 AdhesiveMixtures as Sacrificial Substrates in Paper Aging 175 Irina Sulaeva, Ute Henniges, Thomas Rosenau, and Antje Potthast 8.1 Introduction 175 8.2 Materials and Methods 177 8.2.1 Chemicals 177 8.2.2 Preparation of Adhesive Mixtures and Films from Individual Components 177 8.2.3 Preparation of Coated Paper Samples 177 8.2.4 Accelerated Heat-Induced Aging 179 8.2.5 GPC Analysis 179 8.2.6 Contact Angle Measurements 180 8.2.7 Analysis of Paper Brightness 180 8.3 Results and Discussion 180 8.3.1 GPC Analysis of Adhesive Mixtures and Individual Components 180 8.3.2 Molar Mass Analysis of Paper Samples 182 8.3.3 Contact Angle Analysis 184 8.3.4 UV-Vis Measurements of Paper Brightness 185 8.4 Conclusion 186 Acknowledgments 187 References 187 9 Solution-state NMR Analysis of Lignocellulosics in Nonderivatizing Solvents 191 Ashley J. Holding, AlistairW. T. King, and Ilkka Kilpelainen 9.1 Introduction 191 9.2 Solution-state 2D NMR of Lignocellulose andWhole Biomass 195 9.3 Solution State 1D and 2D NMR Spectroscopy of Cellulose and Pulp 203 9.4 Solution-state NMR Spectroscopy of Modified Nanocrystalline Cellulose 211 9.5 Solution State 31P NMR Spectroscopy and Quantification of Hydroxyl Groups 212 9.6 Conclusions and Future Prospects 218 References 219 10 Surface Chemistry and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals 223 Samuel Eyley, Christina Schutz, andWimThielemans 10.1 Introduction 223 10.2 Cellulose Nanocrystals 225 10.3 Morphological and Structural Characterization 228 10.3.1 Microscopy 228 10.3.2 Small Angle Scattering 230 10.3.3 Powder X-ray Diffraction 230 10.3.4 Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy 234 10.4 Chemical Characterization 237 10.4.1 Infrared Spectroscopy 237 10.4.2 Elemental Analysis 238 10.4.3 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 240 10.4.4 Other Methods 243 10.5 Conclusion 245 Acknowledgments 246 References 246 11 Some Comments on Chiral Structures fromCellulose 253 Derek G. Gray 11.1 Chirality and Cellulose Nanocrystals 253 11.2 Can CNC Form Nematic or Smectic-ordered Materials? 255 11.3 Why Do Some CNC Films Not Display Iridescent Colors? 256 11.4 IsThere Any Pattern to the Observed Expressions Of Chirality At Length Scales from the Molecular to the Macroscopic? 257 Acknowledgments 259 References 259 12 Supramolecular Aspects of Native Cellulose: Fringed-fibrillar Model, Leveling-off Degree of Polymerization and Production of Cellulose Nanocrystals 263 Eero Kontturi 12.1 Introduction 263 12.2 Fringed-fibrillarModel: Crystallographic, Spectroscopic, and Microscopic Evidence 264 12.3 Leveling-off Degree of Polymerization (LODP) 267 12.4 Preparation of Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs) 270 12.5 Conclusion 271 References 271 13 Cellulose Nanofibrils: FromHydrogels to Aerogels 277 Marco Beaumont, Antje Potthast, and Thomas Rosenau 13.1 Introduction 277 13.2 Cellulose Nanofibrils 278 13.3 Hydrogels 282 13.3.1 Cellulose Nanofibrils 284 13.3.2 Composites 288 13.3.3 Modification 293 13.4 Aerogels 296 13.4.1 Drying of Solvogels 297 13.4.2 Mechanical Properties 301 13.4.3 Conductive Aerogels 305 13.4.4 Hydrophobic Aerogels and Superabsorbents 307 13.4.5 Other Applications 315 13.5 Conclusion 317 Acknowledgments 318 References 318 14 High-performance Lignocellulosic Fibers Spun from Ionic Liquid Solution 341 Michael Hummel, AnneMichud, YiboMa, Annariikka Roselli, Agnes Stepan, Sanna Hellsten, Shirin Asaadi, and Herbert Sixta 14.1 Introduction 341 14.2 Materials and Methods 347 14.2.1 Pulp Dissolution and Filtration 348 14.2.2 Rheological Measurements 349 14.2.3 Chemical Composition Analysis 349 14.2.4 Molar Mass Distribution Analysis 349 14.2.5 Fiber Spinning 350 14.2.6 Mechanical Analysis of Fibers 351 14.3 Results and Discussion 351 14.3.1 Lignocellulosic Solutes 351 14.3.2 Rheological Properties 352 14.3.3 Fiber Spinning 354 14.3.4 Fiber Properties 355 14.3.5 Summary of the Influence of Noncellulosic Constituents on the Fiber Properties 360 14.4 Conclusion 361 References 362 15 Bio-based Aerogels: A New Generation of Thermal Superinsulating Materials 371 Tatiana Budtova 15.1 Introduction 371 15.2 Cellulose I Based Aerogels andTheir Composites 373 15.3 Cellulose II Based Aerogels and Their Composites 378 15.4 Pectin-based Aerogels and Their Composites 380 15.5 Starch-based Aerogels 386 15.6 Alginate Aerogels 386 15.7 Conclusions and Prospects 387 References 388 16 Nanocelluloses at the Oil-Water Interface: Emulsions Toward Function and Material Development 393 Siqi Huan, Mariko Ago, MaryamBorghei, and Orlando J. Rojas 16.1 Cellulose Nanocrystal Properties in the Stabilization of O/W Interfaces 393 16.2 Surfactant-free Emulsions 395 16.3 Emulsions Stabilized with Modified Nanocelluloses 398 16.4 Surfactant-assisted Emulsions 402 16.5 Emulsions with Polymer Coemulsifiers 406 16.6 Double Emulsions 409 16.7 Emulsion or Emulsion-precursor Systems with Stimuli-responsive Behavior 413 16.8 Closing Remarks 418 Acknowledgments 418 References 418 17 Honeycomb-patterned Cellulose as a Promising Tool to InvestigateWood CellWall Formation and Deformation 423 Yasumitsu Uraki, Liang Zhou, Qiang Li, Teuku B. Bardant, and Keiichi Koda 17.1 Introduction 423 17.2 Theory of Honeycomb Deformation 425 17.3 HPRC with Cellulose II Polymorphism andTheir Tensile Strength 426 17.4 Validity of Deformation Models 428 17.5 Deposition of Wood Cell Wall Components on the Film of HPBC Film 430 Acknowledgment 432 References 433 Index 435
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