Nano- and Biomaterials

Nano- and Biomaterials

Compounds, Properties, Characterization, and Applications

Abdullaeva, Zhypargul

Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH

08/2017

304

Dura

Inglês

9783527342709

15 a 20 dias

Descrição não disponível.
1 Introduction into Nano- and Biomaterials 1 1.1 Definition of Nano- and Biomaterials 1 1.2 History of Nano- and Biomaterial Application 1 1.3 Methods for Preparing of Nanomaterials 2 1.3.1 Mechanical Dispersion Methods for Nanomaterial Synthesis 2 1.3.2 Intensive Plastic Deformation Methods for Nanomaterial Synthesis 5 1.3.3 Obtaining Nanomaterials by Mechanical Interaction of Various Mediums 8 1.3.4 Physical Dispersion Methods for Nanomaterial Preparation 9 1.3.5 Preparation of Nanomaterials by Evaporation Condensation Method 10 1.3.6 Obtaining Nanomaterials by Vacuum-Sublimation Technology 13 1.3.7 Obtaining Nanomaterials by Using Solid Phase Transformations 14 1.3.8 Chemical Dispersion Methods for Nanomaterial Preparation 14 1.3.9 Obtaining Nanomaterials by Using Chemical Reactions 15 1.3.10 Preparation of Nanomaterials by Electrochemical Methods 20 1.3.11 Preparation of Nanomaterials by Combinations of Physical and Chemical Transformations 21 1.4 Main Achievements in Nanotechnology 22 Case Study 1: Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Environmental Safety Considerations 22 Case Study 2: Property Control of Nanomaterials by Setting Experimental Conditions during Synthesis 23 Control Questions: 23 References 24 2 Classification of Nanomaterials 27 2.1 Dispersive Systems and Their Classifications 27 2.1.1 Classification of Dispersive Systems According to the Aggregation State 27 2.1.2 Classification of Dispersive Systems According to Size 28 2.1.3 Classification of Dispersive Systems According to Dimension 31 2.2 Fullerenes 32 2.2.1 History of Fullerenes 34 2.2.2 Tetrahedral Fullerenes 34 2.2.3 Icosahedral Fullerenes 42 2.2.4 Physical Properties of Fullerenes 47 2.3 Carbon Nanotubes 49 2.3.1 Types and Classification of Carbon Nanotubes 49 2.3.2 Mechanical Properties and Physical Parameters of Carbon Nanotubes 52 Case Study 1: Comparison of Structural Characteristics between Carbon Nanotubes and Fullerenes 54 Control Questions 54 References 55 Online Sources 56 3 Nanocomposite Materials and Their Physical Property Features 57 3.1 Nanocomposite Materials 57 3.2 Size Dependence as Nanomaterial Property 57 3.3 Thermodynamical Features of Nanomaterials 58 3.4 Phase Equilibrium Changes in Nano-sized Systems 60 3.5 Melting Temperature Changes in Nanomaterials 61 3.5.1 Polymorphic Characteristic Changes in Nanosystems 61 3.6 Structure of Nano-sized Materials 62 3.7 Crystal Lattice Defects in Nanomaterials 65 3.8 Microdistorsions of Crystal Lattice in Nanomaterials 66 3.9 Consolidation of Nano-sized Powders 68 Case Study 1: Applications of Composite Nanomaterials Due to Their Improved Mechanical Properties 74 Control Questions 75 References 76 Online Source 77 4 Mechanical Characteristics of Dispersive Systems 79 4.1 Dispersion Characteristics of Nanomaterials 79 4.1.1 Specific Surface Area 79 4.1.2 Size Distribution in Nanomaterials 80 4.1.3 Surface, Boundaries, and Morphology of Nanomaterials 89 4.1.4 Grain Boundaries in Nanomaterials 91 4.1.5 Morphology of Nanodisperse Particles 92 4.2 Electrical Properties of Nanomaterials 95 4.2.1 Change in Length of Electron Free Path in Nanomaterials 95 4.3 Electrical Conductivity in Nanomaterials 97 4.4 Electron Work Function in Nanomediums 99 4.5 Superconductivity Phenomenon in Nanomaterials 101 Case Study 1: Surfactant Effects on Dispersion Characteristics of Copper-Based Nanomaterials 105 Case Study 2: Applications of Superconducting Nanomaterials 105 Control Questions 106 References 106 5 Physical Properties of Nanomaterials: Graphene 109 5.1 Ferromagnetic Characteristics of Nanomaterials 109 5.1.1 Substance in Single-Domain Condition 109 5.1.2 Superparamagnetism in Nanoparticles 111 5.1.3 Size Dependence on Coercive Force 112 5.1.4 Size Dependence on Saturation Magnetization 114 5.1.5 Size Dependence on Curie Temperature 115 5.2 Heat Property Features in Nanomaterials 115 5.2.1 Size Dependence on Heat Conductivity 116 5.2.2 Heat Conductivity of Crystal Lattice in Nanomaterials 120 5.2.3 Debye Temperature in Nanomaterials 121 5.3 Optical Characteristics of Nanomediums 122 5.3.1 Light Scattering Features of Tiny Particles 123 5.3.2 Extinction by Dielectric Nanoparticles 125 5.3.3 Extinction in Metallic Nanoparticles 128 5.3.4 Influence of Morphology and Polydispersity on Optical Properties of Nanomaterials 131 5.4 Diffusion in Nanomaterials 133 5.4.1 Diffusion in Nanopowders 133 5.5 Graphene 136 5.5.1 Structure of Graphene 137 5.5.2 Elementary Electronic Properties of Graphene 138 5.5.3 Topology of Hexagonal Lattice 139 5.5.4 Physical Properties and Ionization Potential of Graphene 139 5.5.5 Approaches in Graphene Synthesis 140 5.5.6 Characterizations of Graphene 143 5.5.7 Applications of Graphene 145 Case Study 1: Structural Features of Graphene, Lattice Directions, Edge Location, Crystal Structure, and Energy in Reciprocal Space 146 Case Study 2: Various Applications of Graphene 148 Control Questions 148 References 149 6 Chemical Properties and Mechanical Characteristics of Nanomaterial Characterization Tools in Nanotechnology 153 6.1 Chemical Properties of Nanomaterials 153 6.1.1 Size Effects in Chemical Processes 153 6.1.2 Oxidation Processes in Nanomediums 155 6.1.3 Spontaneous Combustion and Pyrophoricity of Nanomediums 159 6.1.4 Catalysis Involving Nanomaterials 162 6.2 Mechanical Characteristics of Nanomaterials 165 6.2.1 Hardness, Strength, and Plasticity in Nanomaterials 165 6.2.2 Superplasticity Phenomenon of Nanomaterials 172 6.3 Concept Map of Characterization Tools in Nanotechnology 174 6.4 Diffraction Methods for Nanomaterial Characterization 175 6.5 Microscopical Characterization of Nanomaterials 176 6.5.1 TEM Characterization of Nanomaterials 176 6.5.2 HRTEM Characterization of Nanomaterials 179 6.5.3 AFM Characterization of Nanomaterials 179 6.5.4 SEM Characterization of Nanomaterials 180 6.6 Spectroscopical Characterization of Nanomaterials 183 6.6.1 FTIR Spectroscopy of Nanomaterials 183 6.6.2 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Nanomaterials 184 Case Study 1: Oxidation of Fe Nanoparticles 185 Case Study 2: Microscopical Characterization of Nanomaterials and Sample Preparation 186 Case Study 3: Strength in Nanomaterials 186 Control Questions 187 References 188 Online Sources 189 7 Introduction to Biomaterials 191 7.1 Biomaterials: Subject, Purpose, and Problems 191 7.1.1 Current Goals of Biomaterials Field 191 7.2 General Requirements for Biomaterials 192 7.3 Biomaterials in Body Systems 193 7.4 Types and Classification of Biomaterials 194 7.4.1 Metallic Biomaterials 195 7.4.2 Composite Biomaterials 201 7.4.3 Nanostructured CaP Composites 202 Case Study 1: Mechanical Properties of Bone Cements and Tissue Interface Formation after Implantation 205 Control Questions 206 References 207 8 Properties of Biomaterials 211 8.1 Mechanical Properties of Biomaterials 211 8.1.1 Essentials of Mechanical Properties 211 8.1.2 Titanium Alloy with Self-Adjustable Young s Modulus 213 8.1.3 Wear Resistance of Biomaterials Used in the Living Body 214 8.2 Biological Properties of Biomaterials 217 8.2.1 In Vivo Tissue Biocompatibility 217 8.3 Chemical Properties of Biomaterials 222 8.3.1 Ceramic Biomaterials 224 8.3.2 Polymer Biomaterials 232 Case Study 1: Polymeric Biomaterials Used in Load-Bearing Medical Devices 237 Control Questions 238 References 239 9 Implants and Artificial Organs 241 9.1 Implants to Put an Organ, Group of Cells, or Device into the Body in a Medical Operation 241 9.2 Types of Implants 242 9.2.1 Intraocular Lenses 242 9.2.2 Cochlear Implants 243 9.2.3 Brain Implants 244 9.2.4 Heart Implants 245 9.2.5 Joint Implants 248 9.2.6 Other Organ Replacement Implants 249 9.3 Processes between Living Tissue and Implant Interface 251 Case Study 1: Iris-Fixated Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation after Retinal Detachment Surgery: Long-Term Clinical Results 254 Case Study 2: Cardiac Pacing Systems and Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators (ICDs): A Radiological Perspective of Equipment, Anatomy, and Complications 256 Case Study 3: One-Step Grafting Procedure Using Artificial Dermis and Split-Thickness Skin in Burns Patients 257 Control Questions 258 References 258 10 Tissue Engineering, Scaffolds, and 3D Bioprinting 261 10.1 Definition of Tissue Engineering 261 10.1.1 Biomaterials Used for Tissue Engineering 261 10.1.2 Principles of Tissue Engineering 262 10.1.3 Components of Tissue-Engineered Constructs 263 10.2 Scaffolds and Scaffolding 265 10.2.1 Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering 265 10.2.2 Tissue Engineering of Heart Valves 267 10.3 3D Bioprinting 269 10.4 Foreign Body Reaction 274 10.4.1 Inflammatory Response Following Material Implantation 276 10.4.2 Monocytes, Macrophages, and Foreign Body Giant Cells 277 10.5 Wound Healing 278 Case Study 1: Bioactive Glass and Glass-Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering 278 Case Study 2: Regulatory Considerations in the Design and Manufacturing of Implantable 3D Printed Medical Devices 279 Control Questions 282 References 282 Index 285
Este título pertence ao(s) assunto(s) indicados(s). Para ver outros títulos clique no assunto desejado.