Applied Psychology in Talent Management

Applied Psychology in Talent Management

Aguinis, Herman; Cascio, Wayne F.

SAGE Publications Inc






15 a 20 dias

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Preface to the 8th Edition Acknowledgments About the Authors Chapter 1: Organizations, Work, and Applied Psychology The Pervasiveness of Organizations Differences in Jobs Differences in Performance A Utopian Ideal Point of View Personnel Psychology and Talent Management in Perspective Globalization of Product and Service Markets Impact on Jobs and the Psychological Contract Effects of Technology on Organizations and People Changes in the Structure and Design of Organizations Changing Roles of Managers and Workers Changing Demographics Implications for Organizations and Their People Plan of the Book Chapter 2: The Law and Talent Management The U.S. Legal System Legal Systems Outside the United States Unfair Discrimination: What Is It? Legal Framework for Civil Rights Requirements The U.S. Constitution-Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1871 Equal Pay for Equal Work Regardless of Sex Equal Pay Act of 1963 Equal Pay for Jobs of Comparable Worth Equal Employment Opportunity: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, Religion, Sex, or National Origin Retaliation, and Employment Advertising Suspension of Government Contracts and Back-Pay Awards Exemptions to Title VII Coverage Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (as Amended in 1986) Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (as Amended in 2008) Provisions of the ADA Enforcement of the ADA Civil Rights Act of 1991 Monetary Damages and Jury Trials Adverse Impact (Unintentional Discrimination) Cases Protection in Foreign Countries Racial Harassment Challenges to Consent Decrees Mixed-Motive Cases Seniority Systems Race Norming Extension to U.S. Senate and Appointed Officials Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994 Enforcement of the Laws-Regulatory Agencies State Fair Employment Practices Agencies Equal Employment Opportunity Commission The Complaint Process Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs Goals and Timetables Employment Case Law-General Principles Testing Personal History Sex Discrimination Preventive Actions by Employers Age Discrimination "English Only" Rules-National Origin Discrimination? Seniority Preferential Selection Chapter 3: People, Decisions, and the Systems Approach Costs and Consequences of Decisions-A Way of Thinking Organizations as Systems A Systems View of the Staffing Process Optimizing Staffing Investments Optimizing Staffing Outcomes A Systems View of the Broader Employment Process Work Analysis Strategic Workforce Planning Recruitment Initial Screening Selection Training and Development Performance Management Organizational Exit Chapter 4: Criteria: Definitions, Measures, and Evaluation Definition Job Performance as a Criterion Dimensionality of Criteria Static Dimensionality Dynamic or Temporal Dimensionality Individual Dimensionality Challenges in Criterion Development Challenge #1: Job Performance (Un)Reliability Challenge #2: Reliability of Job Performance Observation Challenge #3: Dimensionality of Job Performance Performance and Situational Characteristics Environmental and Organizational Characteristics Environmental Safety Lifespace Variables Job and Location Extraindividual Differences and Sales Performance Leadership Steps in Criterion Development Evaluating Criteria Relevance Sensitivity or Discriminability Practicality Criterion Deficiency Criterion Contamination Bias Due to Knowledge of Predictor Information Bias Due to Group Membership Bias in Ratings Composite Criterion Versus Multiple Criteria Composite Criterion Multiple Criteria Differing Assumptions Resolving the Dilemma Research Design and Criterion Theory Distribution of Performance and Star Performers Chapter 5: Performance Appraisal and Management Purposes Served Realities and Challenges of Performance Management Systems Fundamental Requirements of Successful Performance Management Systems Benefits of State-of-the-Science Performance Management Systems Who Shall Rate? Immediate Supervisor Peers Subordinates Self Clients Served Appraising Performance: Individual Versus Group Tasks Putting It All Together: 360-Degree Systems Agreement and Equivalence of Ratings Across Sources Judgmental Biases in Rating Leniency and Severity Central Tendency Halo Types of Performance Measures Objective Measures Subjective Measures Rating Systems: Relative and Absolute Relative Rating Systems (Employee Comparisons) Rank Ordering Paired Comparisons Forced Distribution Absolute Rating Systems Essays Behavioral Checklists Forced-Choice System Critical Incidents Graphic Rating Scales Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales Summary Comments on Rating Formats and Rating Process Factors Affecting Subjective Appraisals Evaluating the Performance of Teams Rater Training The Social, Emotional, and Interpersonal Context of Performance Management Systems Performance Feedback: Appraisal and Goal-Setting Interviews Communicate Frequently Get Training in Appraisal Judge Your Own Performance First Encourage Subordinate Preparation Use "Priming" Information Warm Up and Encourage Participation Judge Performance, Not Personality or Self-Concept Be Specific Be an Active Listener Avoid Destructive Criticism and Threats to the Employee's Ego Set Mutually Agreeable and Formal Goals Continue to Communicate and Assess Progress Toward Goals Regularly Make Organizational Rewards Contingent on Performance Chapter 6: Measuring and Interpreting Individual Differences What Is Measurement? Scales of Measurement Nominal Scales Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales Scales Used in Applied Psychological Measurement Selecting and Creating the Right Measure Steps for Selecting and Creating Measures Determining a Measure's Purpose Defining the Attribute Developing a Measure Plan Writing Items Conducting a Pilot Study and Traditional Item Analysis Conducting an Item Analysis Using Item Response Theory Selecting Items Determining Reliability and Gathering Evidence for Validity Revising and Updating Items Selecting an Appropriate Measure: Test-Classification Methods Content Administration Standardized and Nonstandardized Tests Scoring Further Considerations in Selecting a Test Reliability as Consistency Estimation of Reliability Test-Retest Parallel (or Alternate) Forms Internal Consistency Kuder-Richardson Reliability Estimates Split-Half Reliability Estimates Stability and Equivalence Interrater Reliability Summary Interpretation of Reliability Range of Individual Differences Difficulty of the Measurement Procedure Size and Representativeness of Sample Standard Error of Measurement Scale Coarseness Generalizability Theory Interpreting the Results of Measurement Procedures Looking to the Future: Anticipated Innovations in Applied Psychological Measurement Chapter 7: Validation and Use of Individual-Differences Measures Relationship Between Reliability and Validity Evidence of Validity Content-Related Evidence Criterion-Related Evidence Predictive Studies Concurrent Studies Requirements of Criterion Measures in Predictive and Concurrent Studies Factors Affecting the Size of Obtained Validity Coefficients Range Enhancement Range Restriction Position in the Employment Process Form of the Predictor-Criterion Relationship Retesting Construct-Related Evidence Construct Validation Process An Illustration of Construct Validation Cross-Validation Empirical Cross-Validation Statistical Cross-Validation Comparison of Empirical and Statistical Strategies Gathering Validity Evidence When Local Validation Is Not Feasible Synthetic Validity Test Transportability Validity Generalization How to Conduct a VG Study Refinements to VG Techniques Challenges in Conducting a VG Study Empirical Bayesian Analysis Application of Alternative Validation Strategies: Illustration Chapter 8: Fairness in Employment Decisions Assessing Differential Validity Differential Validity and Adverse Impact Differential Validity: The Evidence Assessing Differential Prediction and Moderator Variables Differential Prediction: The Evidence Problems in Testing for Differential Prediction Using Meta-Analysis to Assess Differential Prediction Suggestions for Improving the Accuracy of Slope-Based Differential Prediction Assessment Further Considerations Regarding Adverse Impact, Differential Validity, and Differential Prediction Minimizing Adverse Impact Through Test-Score Banding Fairness and the Interpersonal Context of Employment Testing Fair Employment and Public Policy Chapter 9: Analyzing Jobs and Work Definition, Professional Standards Terminology Aligning Method With Purpose Choices Defining the Job Job Specifications Reliability and Validity of Work Analysis Information Obtaining Information About Jobs and Work Direct Observation and Job Performance Interview SME Panels Questionnaires The Position Analysis Questionnaire Fleishman Job Analysis Survey Critical Incidents Other Sources of Job Information and Job Analysis Methods The Job Analysis Wizard Incorporating Personality Dimensions Into Job Analysis Strategic or Future-Oriented Work Analyses Competency Models Work Analysis for Star Performers Cognitive Task Analysis Occupational Information-From the Dictionary of Occupational Titles to O*NET (R) Multiple Windows Common Language Taxonomies and Hierarchies of Occupational Descriptors The O*NET (R) Content Model Chapter 10: Strategic Workforce Planning What Is Strategic Workforce Planning? Strategic Business and Workforce Plans Levels of Planning The Strategic Planning Process An Alternative Approach Payoffs From Strategic Planning Relationship of HR Strategy to Business Strategy Talent Inventory Information Type Uses Forecasts of Workforce Supply and Demand External Workforce Supply Internal Workforce Supply From Predictable to Unpredictable Supplies of Labor Leadership-Succession Planning Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Succession Workforce Demand Pivotal Jobs Assessing Future Workforce Demand How Accurate Must Demand Forecasts Be? Integrating Supply and Demand Forecasts Matching Forecast Results to Action Plans Control and Evaluation Sampling and Measuring Performance Identifying an Appropriate Strategy for Evaluation Responsibility for Workforce Planning Chapter 11: Recruitment Recruitment Planning Internal Recruitment External Recruitment Staffing Requirements and Cost Analyses Source Analysis Operations External Sources for Recruiting Applicants Managing Recruiting Operations Measurement, Evaluation, and Control Job Search From the Applicant's Perspective Realistic Job Previews Chapter 12: Selection Methods Personal History Data Weighted Application Blanks Biographical Information Blanks Resumes Credit History Response Distortion in Personal History Data Validity of Personal History Data Bias and Adverse Impact What Do Biodata Mean? Recommendations and Reference Checks Polygraph Tests Honesty Tests Evaluation of Training and Experience Drug Screening Computer-Based Screening Employment Interviews Response Distortion in the Interview Reliability and Validity Factors Affecting the Decision-Making Process Social/Interpersonal Factors Cognitive Factors Individual Differences Effects of Structure Summary of Evidence-Based Suggestions for Improving the Interview Process and Outcome The Future Is Now: Technology and Big Data Social Media Mobile and Web-Based Selection Computer Scoring of Text Remote Interviewing Virtual Reality Technology Chapter 13: Managerial Selection Methods Criteria of Managerial Success Global Criterion Measures The Importance of Context Instruments of Prediction Cognitive Ability Tests Controversial Issues in the Use of Cognitive Ability Tests A Recommendation to Address the Controversy Objective Personality Inventories Why and When Does Personality Predict Performance? Response Distortion in Personality Inventories Strategies to Mitigate Response Distortion Leadership Ability Tests Motivation to Manage Personal History Data Peer Assessment Work Samples of Managerial Performance Leaderless Group Discussion Reliability Validity Effects of Training and Experience The In-Basket Test The Business Game Situational Judgment Tests Assessment Centers Assessment Center: The Beginnings Level and Purpose of Assessment Duration and Size Assessors and Their Training Performance Feedback Reliability of the Assessment Process Validity Fairness and Adverse Impact Assessment Center Utility Potential Problems Combining Predictors Chapter 14: Decision Making for Selection Personnel Selection in Perspective Classical Approach to Personnel Selection Efficiency of Linear Models in Job-Success Prediction Unit Weighting Suppressor Variables Data-Combination Strategies Types of Strategies Effectiveness of Alternative Data-Combination Strategies The Role of Subjective Judgment Alternative Prediction Models Multiple-Regression Approach Multiple-Cutoff Approach Setting a Cutoff Angoff Method Expectancy Charts Multiple-Hurdle Approach Extending the Classical Validity Approach to Selection Decisions: Decision-Theory Approach The Selection Ratio The Base Rate Utility Considerations Evaluation of the Decision-Theory Approach Understanding Outcomes of Selection Decisions: Utility Analysis The Naylor-Shine Model The Brogden-Cronbach-Gleser Model Further Developments of the Brogden-Cronbach-Gleser Model Alternative Methods of Estimating SDy Integration of Selection Utility With Capital-Budgeting Models Application of the Brogden-Cronbach-Gleser Model and the Need to Scrutinize Utility Estimates Top Scorers May Turn Down the Offer There Is a Discrepancy Between Expected and Actual Performance Scores Economic Factors Affect Utility Estimates Top Management May Not Believe the Results Utility and Usefulness The Strategic Context of Personnel Selection Decisions Chapter 15: Training and Development: Considerations in Design Factors Driving the Increasing Demand for Workplace Training Training and Development Activities: What Are They? Training Design Characteristics of Effective Training Additional Determinants of Effective Training Fundamental Requirements of Sound Training Practice Defining What Is to Be Learned Interactions of Training and Development With Other Systems Assessing Training Needs Organization Analysis Demographic Analysis Operations Analysis Individual Analysis Rapid Prototyping Specifying Training Objectives Creating an Optimal Environment for Training and Learning Team Training Learning and Individual Differences Trainability and Individual Differences Principles That Enhance Learning Goal Setting Behavior Modeling Meaningfulness of the Material Practice Active Practice Overlearning Length of the Practice Session Feedback Transfer of Training Chapter 16: Training and Development: Implementation and the Measurement of Outcomes Categories of Training and Development Methods Presentation Methods Hands-On Methods Group-Building Methods Technology-Based Training Technique Selection Measuring Training and Development Outcomes Why Measure Training Outcomes? Essential Elements of Measuring Training Outcomes Criteria Time Types of Criteria Levels of Criteria Additional Considerations in Measuring Training Outcomes Strategies for Measuring Training Outcomes in Terms of Financial Impact An Illustration of Utility Analysis Why Not Hold All Training Programs Accountable Strictly in Economic Terms? Influencing Managerial Decisions With Program-Evaluation Data Classical Experimental Designs Design A Design B Design C Design D Limitations of Experimental Designs Quasi-Experimental Designs Design E Design F Design G Design H Statistical, Practical, and Theoretical Significance Logical Analysis Chapter 17: International Dimensions of Talent Management Capitalism in the 21st Century Globalization and Culture Vertical and Horizontal Individualism and Collectivism Country-Level Cultural Differences Theoretical and Methodological Developments in the Study of Culture The Globalization of Psychological Measurement Transporting Psychological Measures Across Cultures Terminology Identification of Potential for International Management and Cultural Competence Selection for International Assignments General Mental Ability Personality Characteristics and Expatriate Success Other Characteristics Related to Success in International Assignments Cross-Cultural Training Performance Management Performance Criteria Who Should Assess Expatriate Performance? Performance Feedback Repatriation Planning Career Management Compensation Chapter 18: Organizational Responsibility and Ethical Issues in Talent Management Organizational Responsibility: Definition and General Framework Organizational Responsibility: Benefits Organizational Responsibility: Implementation and the Role of Human Resource Management Research and Practice Employee Privacy Safeguarding Employee Privacy Fair Information Practice in the Information Age Employee Searches and Other Workplace Investigations Testing and Evaluation Obligations to One's Profession Obligations to Those Who Are Evaluated Obligations to Employers Individual Differences Serving as Antecedents of Ethical Behavior Ethical Issues in Organizational Research Ethical Issues at the Research-Planning Stage Ethical Issues in Recruiting and Selecting Research Participants Ethical Issues in Conducting Research: Protecting Research Participants' Rights Ethical Issues in Reporting Research Results Strategies for Addressing Ethical Issues in Organizational Research Science, Advocacy, and Values in Organizational Research Appendix A: Scientific and Legal Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures- Checklists for Compliance Scientific Guidelines-Summary Checklist Premise Sources of Validity Evidence Planning the Validation Effort and Analysis of Work Criterion-Related Evidence of Validity Feasibility Criterion Development Choice of Predictors Choice of Participants Data Analysis for Criterion-Related Validity Evidence for Validity Based on Content Evidence of Validity Based on Internal Structure Generalizing Validity Evidence Fairness and Bias Operational Considerations Initiating a Validation Effort Selecting Assessment Procedures for the Validation Effort Selecting the Validation Strategy Selecting Criterion Measures Data Collection Data Analyses Communicating the Effectiveness of Selection Procedures Appropriate Use of Selection Procedures Technical Validation Report Administration Guide Other Circumstances Regarding the Validation Effort and Use of Selection Procedures Legal Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures 1. Adverse Impact A. Records Relating to Adverse Impact B. Special Record-Keeping Provisions C. Four-Fifths Rule D. Adverse Impact When User Meets Four-Fifths Rule E. Qualifying Circumstances Relating to Adverse Impact 2. Validation A. General Information Regarding Validity B. Identifying Information C. Job Analysis D. Professional Control 3. Criterion-Related Validity A. Sample B. Criterion Measures C. Fairness of Criterion Measures D. Results E. Corrections and Categorization F. Concurrent Validity G. Prediction of Performance on Higher-Level Jobs H. Fairness 4. Content Validity A. Relevance of a Content Validity Strategy B. Relation Between Selection Procedure and Work Behaviors C. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities D. Adequacy of Simulation E. Training 5. Construct Validity 6. Validity Generalization 7. Application A. Use of Selection Procedures B. Test Administration C. Selection Decisions D. Reduction of Adverse Impact E. Currency, Interim Use Appendix B: An Overview of Correlation and Linear Regression The Concept of Correlation The Concept of Regression Making Predictions Based on Multiple Predictors Predictive Accuracy of Multiple Regression Appendix C: Decision Trees for Statistical Methods References Author Index Subject Index
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